On June 21st 2018 we went on a family outing for the summer solstice to Minera mountain, Here we watched the sunset on the longest day of the year, Minera mountain gives an amazing view across Wrexham county, You can see the Cathedral and Police station, On the mountain we had a picnic, There were lots of sheep, They were very cute and there were also lambs (also cute), They came very close, but not close enough to stroke them, They must be strong to withstand the extreme cold which is due to the height. The experience inspired me to have this a a topic.


The name Minera comes from the latin Minerva for mine or the welsh Mwynglawdd meaning ore mine, Minera has been a village since 1620. Originally Minera was a lead and zinc mine, which is no longer in operation. There are fossils near and at the top of Minera mountain that belong to sea creatures, proving that originally the mountain was underwater, serveral hundred million years ago.


I drew this picture of Minera in the style of a painting

I drew this picture of a sunset on Minera also in the syle of a painting

This is a sattelite view of Minera



Minera is part of the Esclusham range of mountains which stretches to Llangollen and is over 1000 feet in height. The aerial map shows part of the range. There are many gorse bushes and bracken growing there.



Cats, the common house cat (Felis catus (or Felis Silvestris)) is a common house pet, being in my opinion, the best. Cats are Feliformia (Fee-lee-ah/uh-for-ma/uh), meaning that they have a specific biological structure pertaining to cats, and similar animals, also common is caninaforma (kay-nye-na/uh-for-ma/uh) pertaining to dogs.


My cat is the absolute best
better than all the rest
and to that I can attest
He falls with ease from any height
he is a Guardian of the night
but he really is quite polite
My cat is the absolute best
better than all the rest
and for that I must protest


Cats have some of the most intriguing and evolved biology i have ever known, it being incredibly practical, for example their spine being designed to turn their whole body up to 180 degrees mid-air, allowing them to land upright when falling, that coupled with their ability to land safely from heights of up to 8 meters, completely unharmed, they also have a detached collarbone allowing them to turn their head up to 85 degrees relative to their body allowing them to fit through incredibly tight spaces, they also have an amazing stomach with the acid being able to kill bacteria up to the point where they can eat raw non-fresh meat, cats also have retractable claws allowing for the ability to hold themselves onto walls tightly enough to not move, meaning they can climb along surfaces and even in some cases hold themselves to ceilings.Cats eyes are very unique among mammals, with internal reflective surfaces allowing them to see in the dark due to the increased amount of light hitting their rods and cones, also, unlike most mammals, cats, like humans, cats have 3 types of cones allowing themt to see 3 spectrums of colour, however unlike humans it is believed that cats see large portions of the red spectrum as greener colours such as yellow. They also have intriguing vocalisations, for example, purring, which has too many interesting and unknown properties to list, or meowing, which intrestingly is only used around humans and is not found within isolated groups of cats, on that topic, despite being solitary hunters and comparitively emotionally uninvolved pets, when isolated from humans they form incredibly complicated social structures involving intersecting groups of up to 18, though they do not function as packs like dogs, they function as groups rife with mutual distrust and changes of allegiance. One of the most critical amino acids in the cat is Taurine which is responsible for vision, digestion, preganancy, heart function and their immune system. Cats also, unlike humans have an average body temperature of 102 'F, and show absolutely no discomfort until 126 'F and can even cope with up to 133 'F with water,

Anatomy of a male cat

History and evolution

It is theorised that dogs were formed over time as wolves began to follow human hunting packs and eating the remains of carcasses until they became friendly over time, it is most likely a similar process happened with cats up until ancient Egypt where the unlikeness to other animals and the strange human-like behaviour granted them amazing priviliges as they were beleived to be guardians of the undead, and worshipped, with this cats were integrated into human society, most of the rest of cats evolution of history is primarily just cats gaining poularity with their increasing cuteness.In 18th century London they were popular as society became wasteful and rodents began to take over the city, in viking times ginger cats are believed to have been specifically bred.




Flags most likely arose from tribal symbols in very early human history, being an easy way to convey a group (country,tribe etc.) in a 2-dimensional form.

I made these pixel-art flags

Specific flags

An in depth look at all 23 flags

American Flag

The american flag is famed for its colour scheme of red,white,blue with red and white stripes behind 50 white stars on a blue square, 1 star for every state. 13 stripes for each of the original coloonies, sometimes called "Old Glory" after a sea captains flag resisting defacement.

British Flag

The British flag (Union Jack), Is a combination of the old flag of england and scotland, symbolising their joining.

Russian Flag

The Russian flag consists of 3 colours in horizontal lines and was established in 1696 and remained the official flag until 1917 when the RSFSR was formed at which point the flag was replaced with a hammer and sickle, it wasn't until 1991 that the original flag was re-established.

German Flag

The german flag was first established in 1919 though it was in use even in 1848, The current flag though common at the time was not mentioned in the German constituion as it was so well known, the flag has remained the primary flag of germany for most of recent history, with the most recent major change being in 1933 during the reign of Adolf Hitler.

Indian Flag

The Indian flag was first officialised in 1947 And symbolises all faiths, origins, and beliefs in its colour scheme with the spinning wheel symbolising the people of India making their own cloth, interestingly must be made of Khadi by law (Khadi is a kind of fabric popularised by Mahatma Ghandi)

Canadian Flag

The Canadian "Maple leaf" Flag became official in 1955, before this, the flag used the British Union Jack as Canada was originally a British colony.

Irish Flag

The Irish tricolour flag was originally designed in 1848 to symbolise inclusion, the white signifying a lasting truce between green and white, though it wos only made constitutionalised in 1937 with the signing of the irish constitution.

Albanian Flag

The Albanian flag was first established when the country became independant from the Ottoman empire in 1912, the flag is red with a silhouetted black double-headed eagle, the red symbolises bravery and strength while the eagle symbolises the sovereign state of albania.

Icelandic Flag

The Icelandic flag was made official the same day Iceland became a republic in 1944, The red of the flag symbolises the fire of the volcanoes on the island, the white symbolising the icy mountains, and the blue, the sky and the sea.

Polish Flag

The Polish flag was officially adopted in 1919.

Italian Flag

The Italian "Tricolore" Flag was officialy adopted in 1948, though not the original intent, some have attributed the colours meaning, specifficaly, the green being the plains and hills of Italy, the white being the snow capped Alps, and the red representing the blood spilt in the wars of Independance and Unification.

Azerbaijani Flag

The Flag of Azerbaijan was officiated in 1919, the blue of the flag symbolises Turkic Multinationalism, The red is a modern Democratic state, and the green symbolises the countrys connections to the Muslim world.

Japanese Flag

The Japanese Flag was officialised in 1999, it symbolises the rising sun, with a crimson red disc in the center of a plain white background

Lithuanian Flag

The Lithuanian flag was officialy adopted in 1918, the most recent change to the flag was in 2004 when the flag change from 2:1 to 4:3.

Bhutanese Flag

The flag of Bhutan has been in use since 1969 when the last development was made, this flag is full of symbolism, the yellow half symbolises civil tradition and law, the yellow half symbolises buddhist tradition, the "druk" in the center symbolises the safety and wealth of Bhutan and it's white colour symbolises the purity of inner thought. This is my favourite flag.

Chinese Flag

The chinese flag was created in 1949, the red background symbolises the revolution, and the stars symbolise china and its people.

Cambodian Flag

The Cambodian flag was first adopted in 1948 and then re-adopted in 1993, the red of the flag symbolises bravery, the blue symbolises liberty, justice and integrity, and the Angkor Wat symbolises Heritage,Cooperation and Brotherhood.

French Flag

The French flag has been in use officialy since 1830, according to the French Government, White was the colour of the King and red and blue were the colours of Paris.

Grecian Flag

The flag of Greece was officialy adopted in 1822.

South Korean Flag

The flag of South Korea (also known as Taekugki) has an amazingly meticulous chart of symbolisms.

Hungarian Flag

The current flag of Hungary has been in official use since 1957, interestingly this flag has no significant symbolism.

Vietnamese Flag

The flag of Vietnam was adopted in 1945, the red of the flag symbolises the goals of the vietnamese people and the star symbolises the 5 classes of vietnamese society.

North Korean Flag

The North Korean flag was first adopted in 1948, the colours represent purity, strength, dignity, and peace.

Australian Flag

The flag of Australia was officiatted in 1903, it is a defaced blue ensign, this means that it contains the union jack, however it is "defaced" with the stars.

Austrian Flag

The Austrian flag was officialy adopted in 1918.

Botswanian Flag

The flag of Botswana was adopted in 1966, It is unique in that it uses none of the traditional African colours for flags.

Brazilian Flag

The brazillian flag - The flag symbolises a reflection of the night sky, the colours depict the first brazilian emperor and his family.

My Flag

After doing a lot of research on flags i decided to make one of my own to represent my family, the purple symbolises an element not found naturally, embracing a new technological world, the green represents natural roots, the blue circle representing the earth with a cat as the continental mass.