On June 21st 2018 we went on a family outing for the summer solstice to Minera mountain, Here we watched the sunset on the longest day of the year, Minera mountain gives an amazing view across Wrexham county, You can see the Cathedral and Police station, On the mountain we had a picnic, There were lots of sheep, They were very cute and there were also lambs (also cute), They came very close, but not close enough to stroke them, They must be strong to withstand the extreme cold which is due to the height. The experience inspired me to have this a a topic.


The name Minera comes from the latin Minerva for mine or the welsh Mwynglawdd meaning ore mine, Minera has been a village since 1620. Originally Minera was a lead and zinc mine, which is no longer in operation. There are fossils near and at the top of Minera mountain that belong to sea creatures, proving that originally the mountain was underwater, serveral hundred million years ago.


I drew this picture of Minera in the style of a painting

I drew this picture of a sunset on Minera also in the syle of a painting

This is a sattelite view of Minera



Minera is part of the Esclusham range of mountains which stretches to Llangollen and is over 1000 feet in height. The aerial map shows part of the range. There are many gorse bushes and bracken growing there.



Cats, the common house cat (Felis catus (or Felis Silvestris)) is a common house pet, being in my opinion, the best. Cats are Feliformia (Fee-lee-ah/uh-for-ma/uh), meaning that they have a specific biological structure pertaining to cats, and similar animals, also common is caninaforma (kay-nye-na/uh-for-ma/uh) pertaining to dogs.


My cat is the absolute best
better than all the rest
and to that I can attest
He falls with ease from any height
he is a Guardian of the night
but he really is quite polite
My cat is the absolute best
better than all the rest
and for that I must protest


Cats have some of the most intriguing and evolved biology i have ever known, it being incredibly practical, for example their spine being designed to turn their whole body up to 180 degrees mid-air, allowing them to land upright when falling, that coupled with their ability to land safely from heights of up to 8 meters, completely unharmed, they also have a detached collarbone allowing them to turn their head up to 85 degrees relative to their body allowing them to fit through incredibly tight spaces, they also have an amazing stomach with the acid being able to kill bacteria up to the point where they can eat raw non-fresh meat, cats also have retractable claws allowing for the ability to hold themselves onto walls tightly enough to not move, meaning they can climb along surfaces and even in some cases hold themselves to ceilings.Cats eyes are very unique among mammals, with internal reflective surfaces allowing them to see in the dark due to the increased amount of light hitting their rods and cones, also, unlike most mammals, cats, like humans, cats have 3 types of cones allowing themt to see 3 spectrums of colour, however unlike humans it is believed that cats see large portions of the red spectrum as greener colours such as yellow. They also have intriguing vocalisations, for example, purring, which has too many interesting and unknown properties to list, or meowing, which intrestingly is only used around humans and is not found within isolated groups of cats, on that topic, despite being solitary hunters and comparitively emotionally uninvolved pets, when isolated from humans they form incredibly complicated social structures involving intersecting groups of up to 18, though they do not function as packs like dogs, they function as groups rife with mutual distrust and changes of allegiance. One of the most critical amino acids in the cat is Taurine which is responsible for vision, digestion, preganancy, heart function and their immune system. Cats also, unlike humans have an average body temperature of 102 'F, and show absolutely no discomfort until 126 'F and can even cope with up to 133 'F with water,

Anatomy of a male cat

History and evolution

It is theorised that dogs were formed over time as wolves began to follow human hunting packs and eating the remains of carcasses until they became friendly over time, it is most likely a similar process happened with cats up until ancient Egypt where the unlikeness to other animals and the strange human-like behaviour granted them amazing priviliges as they were beleived to be guardians of the undead, and worshipped, with this cats were integrated into human society, most of the rest of cats evolution of history is primarily just cats gaining poularity with their increasing cuteness.In 18th century London they were popular as society became wasteful and rodents began to take over the city, in viking times ginger cats are believed to have been specifically bred.




Flags most likely arose from tribal symbols in very early human history, being an easy way to convey a group (country,tribe etc.) in a 2-dimensional form.

I made these pixel-art flags

Specific flags

An in depth look at all 23 flags

American Flag

The american flag is famed for its colour scheme of red,white,blue with red and white stripes behind 50 white stars on a blue square, 1 star for every state. 13 stripes for each of the original coloonies, sometimes called "Old Glory" after a sea captains flag resisting defacement.

British Flag

The British flag (Union Jack), Is a combination of the old flag of england and scotland, symbolising their joining.

Russian Flag

The Russian flag consists of 3 colours in horizontal lines and was established in 1696 and remained the official flag until 1917 when the RSFSR was formed at which point the flag was replaced with a hammer and sickle, it wasn't until 1991 that the original flag was re-established.

German Flag

The german flag was first established in 1919 though it was in use even in 1848, The current flag though common at the time was not mentioned in the German constituion as it was so well known, the flag has remained the primary flag of germany for most of recent history, with the most recent major change being in 1933 during the reign of Adolf Hitler.

Indian Flag

The Indian flag was first officialised in 1947 And symbolises all faiths, origins, and beliefs in its colour scheme with the spinning wheel symbolising the people of India making their own cloth, interestingly must be made of Khadi by law (Khadi is a kind of fabric popularised by Mahatma Ghandi)

Canadian Flag

The Canadian "Maple leaf" Flag became official in 1955, before this, the flag used the British Union Jack as Canada was originally a British colony.

Irish Flag

The Irish tricolour flag was originally designed in 1848 to symbolise inclusion, the white signifying a lasting truce between green and white, though it wos only made constitutionalised in 1937 with the signing of the irish constitution.

Albanian Flag

The Albanian flag was first established when the country became independant from the Ottoman empire in 1912, the flag is red with a silhouetted black double-headed eagle, the red symbolises bravery and strength while the eagle symbolises the sovereign state of albania.

Icelandic Flag

The Icelandic flag was made official the same day Iceland became a republic in 1944, The red of the flag symbolises the fire of the volcanoes on the island, the white symbolising the icy mountains, and the blue, the sky and the sea.

Polish Flag

The Polish flag was officially adopted in 1919.

Italian Flag

The Italian "Tricolore" Flag was officialy adopted in 1948, though not the original intent, some have attributed the colours meaning, specifficaly, the green being the plains and hills of Italy, the white being the snow capped Alps, and the red representing the blood spilt in the wars of Independance and Unification.

Azerbaijani Flag

The Flag of Azerbaijan was officiated in 1919, the blue of the flag symbolises Turkic Multinationalism, The red is a modern Democratic state, and the green symbolises the countrys connections to the Muslim world.

Japanese Flag

The Japanese Flag was officialised in 1999, it symbolises the rising sun, with a crimson red disc in the center of a plain white background

Lithuanian Flag

The Lithuanian flag was officialy adopted in 1918, the most recent change to the flag was in 2004 when the flag change from 2:1 to 4:3.

Bhutanese Flag

The flag of Bhutan has been in use since 1969 when the last development was made, this flag is full of symbolism, the yellow half symbolises civil tradition and law, the yellow half symbolises buddhist tradition, the "druk" in the center symbolises the safety and wealth of Bhutan and it's white colour symbolises the purity of inner thought. This is my favourite flag.

Chinese Flag

The chinese flag was created in 1949, the red background symbolises the revolution, and the stars symbolise china and its people.

Cambodian Flag

The Cambodian flag was first adopted in 1948 and then re-adopted in 1993, the red of the flag symbolises bravery, the blue symbolises liberty, justice and integrity, and the Angkor Wat symbolises Heritage,Cooperation and Brotherhood.

French Flag

The French flag has been in use officialy since 1830, according to the French Government, White was the colour of the King and red and blue were the colours of Paris.

Grecian Flag

The flag of Greece was officialy adopted in 1822.

South Korean Flag

The flag of South Korea (also known as Taekugki) has an amazingly meticulous chart of symbolisms.

Hungarian Flag

The current flag of Hungary has been in official use since 1957, interestingly this flag has no significant symbolism.

Vietnamese Flag

The flag of Vietnam was adopted in 1945, the red of the flag symbolises the goals of the vietnamese people and the star symbolises the 5 classes of vietnamese society.

North Korean Flag

The North Korean flag was first adopted in 1948, the colours represent purity, strength, dignity, and peace.

Australian Flag

The flag of Australia was officiatted in 1903, it is a defaced blue ensign, this means that it contains the union jack, however it is "defaced" with the stars.

Austrian Flag

The Austrian flag was officialy adopted in 1918.

Botswanian Flag

The flag of Botswana was adopted in 1966, It is unique in that it uses none of the traditional African colours for flags.

Brazilian Flag

The brazillian flag - The flag symbolises a reflection of the night sky, the colours depict the first brazilian emperor and his family.

My Flag

After doing a lot of research on flags i decided to make one of my own to represent my family, the purple symbolises an element not found in nature, embracing a new technological world, the green represents natural roots, the blue circle representing the earth with a cat as the continental mass.


Welsh Language

Welsh or Gymraeg is one of the official languages of Wales (The other being English) Originating from 577 AD it is the oldest european language. Welsh is famed for being hard to learn and understand to people who don't speak the language as unlike most current languages, it has no roots in Latin, something which is true in most common languages nowadays, the most famous example of other languages that don't have any Latin roots are Japanese and Chinese. In recent years there has been a decline in the number of welsh speakers, because of this the Welsh Government has begun taking measures such as heavy welsh education in schools to make sure that the language doesn't die out. Interestingly, though Welsh is a minority language it is one of the EUs 23 languages and was one of the 55 languages included on the Voyager golden record


Wales has been inhabited by modern humans for as long as 29,000 years, it was first inhabited then as water levels were much lower, meaning that what is now ocean and rivers, then was just land, then the Neolithic revolution occured in 4000 BC and the inhabitants of Wales went from being Hunters and nomads to being farmers, they developed more advanced technology such as cermaic and textiles, by the time of the roman invasion of britain, modern wales was inhabited by several tribes. after the Roman occupation of britain in 78 AD, due to the resistance of welsh tribes, only one city was founded in Wales by the Romans called Caerwent. In 500 AD What is now Wales was several indpendant celtic states. In 1277 Wales was genrally considered to be a full-blown country, and by 1850 Wales was becoming a hub of economic and industrial activity, in the 1860s South Wales alone accounted for 40% of all of "pig iron" produced in britain. The Government of wales act was formed in 1988 and has the power to decide the governement budget.

Welsh flag

The welsh flag in its current design was adopted in 1959, it has a ratio of 3:5 and is a red dragon in front of 2 horizontal white and green bars, interestingly the dragons design is unstandardised as are most heraldic charges. Though the current iteration of the flag has been in use sine 1959, the red dragon has been used The flag represent the red dragon encased in ice by the white dragon, the white being sky and the green being grass.


Wales currently accounts for 4% of the UKs economic output while occupying 8.55% of UK land and having 5% of the UKs population. 72% of welsh people are employed with a massive 23% of welsh people being in poverty. the average weekly earning in wales is £455, compared to £513 in England, £498 in scotland, and £460 in Northern Ireland. An average house in wales costs approximately £126,000, with the average household wealth being £214,200.


Snowdonia is a very large mountainous area in North Wales, it contains the highest peaks in Wales and also in the UK, outside of scotland. The english name for the region is derived from Snowdon, the name of the highest mountain in Wales, Snowdon has a height of 1085 miles or 3560ft, the welsh name for snowdonia is Eryri, it is believed to be derived from the latin word oriri meaning, to rise. More than 26,000 people live in Snowdonia national park, approximately 58.6% of the population in the park speak welsh compared to 19% in Wales as a whole.

Mynydd Mawr in Snowdonia


Great green grass
fine free fjords
spry showered sheep
and beautiful bright skys
Windy wet Wales is a beautiful place
Skys rich with cloud and sun
Ground rich with mineral and vegetable
and a proud and proper people
and these are the things that make Wales Wales

World War 1

When i started this topic i set out to learn about what sparked the war, how it led to the entire world being involved, what the 2 sides were, what trench warfare was and what no-mans land was, and with a bit of research i found out what they were.

The beginning

It all started on the 28th of June 1914 when Gavrilo Princip assasianated the Austro Hungarian heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand in sarajevo leading to the events of July that year, on July 23rd Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum , when the serbians response failed to satisfty the Austrians, the 2 officialy entered a war state with eatchother. A long network of allies between lots of countries spread the war worldwide.

Trench warfare and no-mans land

Trench Warfare was a method of combat that used extremely long pits about the height of an average person in which troops were positioned to fire at the enemy, almost always nearly entirely blindly, this led to slow combat, with trenches being dug forwards inch by inch, slowly advancing towrds the enemy, no-mans land was a direct result of trench warfare, it was a long area inbetween trenches which was riddled with gunfire and explosions, it was so named no-mans land because no man could cross it due the intense constant gunfire between the 2 sides, crossing it would surely result in death.

Sarajevo Assasination

On June 28th 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. A group of six assassins (Cvjetko Popovic, Gavrilo Princip, Muhamed Mehmedbasic, Nedeljko Cabrinovic, Trifko Grabez, and Vaso Cubrilovic) from the group Mlada Bosna, with armaments from the Serbian Black Hand, gathered on the street where the Archduke's motorcade was going to go by, with the intention of assassinating him. The political objective of the assassination was to seperate Austria-Hungarys South Slavic provinces, which Austria-Hungary had isolated from the Ottoman Empire so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia.

Cabrinovic threw a grenade at the car but missed, Some nearby people were injured by the explosion, but the motorcade carried on. The other assassins didn't do anything as the cars drove past them.

About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a trip to the Sarajevo Hospital with the people hurt in the assassination attempt, the convoy went the wrong way into a street where, by complete coincidence, Gavrilo Princip, With a pistol, shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife. The reaction of the people in Austria, however, was almost indifferent. The historian Zbynek Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. But the political effect of the murder was still significant, and was a terrorist event of huge historic importance.

Essay - WW1 Naval Warfare

This essay will be about Naval warfare in World War 1 and how it affected the progress of the war, it will cover the naval stratagies of various countries involved in the war, and it will also cover various other details of the war to do with naval warfare.

At the beginning of the war, the Germans had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were used to attack Allied merchant ships, Because of this, The British Royal Navy systematically hunted each German cruiser ship down, though they still could not fully protect Allied Merchants.

Before the war began, it was widely believed that Britain had the strongest and most influential navy in the world, A book named The influence of sea power upon history by Alfred Mahan was published in 1890 and was intended to convince the United States to increase their naval power. but the book instead was published in Germany and is believed to have inspired Germany to try to overpower the British Navy.

The German light cruiser the SMS Emden which was part of the East Asian Squadron and was stationed at the Qindao Port, seized and destroyed 15 Ally Merchant ships, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser ship, and sinking a French destroyer ship. But most of the German-East Asia Squadron (consisting of the armoured cruisers the SMS Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, the light cruisers, Nurnberg and Leipzig aswell as two transport ships) did not have orders to raid merchant ships and instead were to go underway to Germany when it encountered British warships. The German ship, the SMS Dresden sank two armoured British cruisers at The battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Falkland islands in 1914, with only the Dresden and a few smaller ships escaping, but these were also destroyed in The battle of Mas Tierra.

Soon after the Great Britian joined the war, they began to block all shipbound supplies into germany. It was an incredibly effective strategy, it cut off vital military war and civilian food supplies. Even though the blockade violated several international laws agreed upon by many countries over the last 2 hundred years. Britain placed mines all across various places inside international waters to prevent any ships from entering huge sections of ocean, causing extreme danger to even entirely neutral ships. Since there was very little objection the tactic by most countries, Germany anticipated a similar response to its relentless submarine warfare.

The Battle of Jutland in May and June of 1916 became the largest naval battle of the entire war. It was the only full-scale conflict of battleships during the war, and one of the largest in history. The Kaiserliche Marines High Seas Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer and fought the British Navys Fleet, which was led by Admiral John Jellicoe. The Germans were completely outmanuoevred by the much larger British fleet, but managed to escape and inflict much more damage to the British fleet than they received. But the British strategically maintained their control of the sea and their Naval strength, and the bulk of the German above water fleet remained in port for the entirety of the war.

In conclusion, the British Navy maintained a strong footing in terms of Naval warfare, they managed to almost completely restrict the german above water fleets. Even after Germany released wave after wave of submarine later in the war, Britian mantained a strong Naval presence.


Whizz, Bang, Fwoosh, Ting, Phwoar
The sounds of war shake a person to the core
A deepest terror lies within
An eternal dread knowing that,
that little trigger that you pulled,
could be the last thing that they know
a fleeting thought that if,
you never did what they said,
they might have lived another day
forever knowing it wasn't right
a human soul, lost forever
another body in the ground
another one, another gone

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