I made this diagram of pottasium and bromine bonding, at first they both have a neutral value of 0 but after ionic bonding pottasium gives up an electron to bromine, meaning that the pottasium becomes pottasium bromide with an overall positive charge, and the bromine now has a negative charge.

The below diagram shows covalent bonding with hydrogen and chlorine, they both only now have 1 extra electron from the other, but the same number of protons and thus have a negative charge.

Greatest scientest of the 20th century

I recently saw a vote on who was the most iconic and the greatest scientest of the 20th century, the choices were, Marie Curie, Alan Turing, Albert Einstein and Tu youyou. I voted Marie Curie, but i was torn between her and Alan Turing, becuase they were both amazing people, I am going to compare them here.


I was torn between who i was going to vote for because Alan Turing was a genius, he invented the "Turing Machine" which not only won WW2 but also became the invention nowadays known as the "computer" which you may know is in literally every device nowadays and has directly saved Thousand of millions of people, if not Billions, Alan Turing was a great man who had a sad death, he commited suicide after being chemically castrated for being gay. On the other hand theres Marie Curie, who not only save millions with her research into radiation and her popularistation of the X-ray, but she also directly saved hundreds on the battlefield, going into war-zones to gives x-rays to dying men, and she started the fleet of x-ray vans around the battlefield saving even more people injured in the war, i voted for Marie Curie because although she saved many less, i think that she tried harder to be a good person and save as many people as possible, and although i was tempted to vote for Alan Turing, i went with Marie Curie because she was, in my eyes, a better person, Alan Turing fought hard and deserves alot more recognition than he gets, but Marie Curie won my vote.

The universe, inside outside and all around

In this section of this page i wll cover various topics in science, from overpouplation to moonbases.

Plastic pollution

PLastic pollution is a well known, complicated issue, and the bottom line is, it's one of the biggest problems we have. Currently there isn't a simple solution to it, cutting out plastic completely would cause as many problems as doubling our plastic production and it's getting worse and worse. Plastic is now all over the planet, in the ocean, in the ground, in our WILDLIFE and even in our food. The obvious solution would be to stop using plastic completely, but alternativs like wood are much worse for the envirioment, currently the cost of producing plastic is so low, that to make it enviromentally worth using a cotton reusable bag, you would have to use the bag 19500 times for it to have less of an impact on the enviroment than using a platic bag. It has been discovered that 8 out of 10 fish and birds have eaten plastic, in less than a decade the amount of plastic in the ocean will outway the fish, a huge issue is that fish are eating large amounts of plastic and starving because their stomaches are full of indigestable waste. it's sort of odd that mankind have decided to use a ridiculously durable material which our eviroment cannot recycle as useless waste for random things like packaging, but plastic has massively reduced the amount of food waste as quick and easy packaging has allowed for easy production. It's a big issue that really needs to be solved, even though there's no easy solution.


Overpopulation is a big issue, or is it? turns out it isn't, people say that if birth rates continue then within a decade there will be 12 Billion people, but this simply isn't true, because in reality population growth with countries works in 4 stages, as an example i'll use london, in stage 1 like in the 18th and 19th century a woman had an average of 6.75 children but only 2 would live to adulthood, in stage 2 with better medical care and food like in the early 20th century the birth rate stays the same but the death rate is much lower, leading to a population explosion, stage 3 is a steady decrease in birth rates, and stage 4 is a stable state of poulation, like the USA and the UK, so the simple "solution" to overpopulation is to help support 3rd world countries develop and improve quality of life for them.

Moon base

Despite seeming like fiction building a moon base is much less complicated than it seems, the budget would only need to be about the same as the ISS and would be spread over about a decade, it would be a huge advancement for humanity with massive potential for advancement and new technologies to be developed, and it's essential for humanity to grow. at first lightweight inflatable habitats, a crew of 12 and as little else as needed, after alot of research eventually a self-sutaining colony will be established, meaning that people will eventually begin to live there, in fact going to mars will mean first going to the moon and launching from there. So, despite seeming crazy a moonbase is both possible and practical.

Science experiments

PH Values

We tested the PH valeus of various household products and items, we tested soap, lemonade, bleach, washing powder, washing liquid, and various other products using litmus paper to check their PH values, it was very interesting and i enjoyed it.

Cloth experiments

We tested different pieces of cloth such as: pure cotton, linen, silk, polyester and acrylic with various washing products, such as: washing powder, detergent, bleach, fabric conditioner and scented pellets, we used some of theese in our washing machine and simply applied to the fabric, we then compared the results, the most sucsessful result for bleach was pure cotton, directly applied, and the most succesful result fo fabric conditioner was silk, directly applied, it was facinating to do this experiment and i enjoyed it alot.

The health effects of ciggaretes

We discussed in depth how harmful ciggaretes are to the human body, we identified the components of a ciggarete and concluded that nicotine was the addictive element and that ciggaretes containd many poisons such as tar, we did an experiment where smoke was allowed to gather on cotton wool, representing inhaling by the lungs, we saw that the cotton wool turned yellow showing that the poisons from the ciggarete would enter the body and cause damage. I found this experiment to be very educational, and i would not under any circu mstances consider smoking in the future.


Mini Motor

Around 10 months ago i dissasembled a small digital camera, recently i have taken the motor from the box of camera parts and soldered it to some wires, i then used an AA battery to power it, it span quite fast and with the addition of a small piece of tape it acted as a small fan, i tried attaching several things to the motor but the tape worked best, i tried attaching several different sizes and shapes of paper, sellotape and popcorn, the paper was interesting and made patterns when written on, the sellotape made intriguing shapes but lost it adhesion and flew if quite quickly, and the popcorn created some amazing shapes but also had little air movement, overall the experience taught me a lot of things about electronics and was very enjoyable.

Ohms Law

Ohms law is an equation that is generally used to calculate the value of a resistor to use in an electrical circuit, the is also another version of Ohms law named Ohms acoustic law, but i am not covering that here. Ohms law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. This introduces the constant of the proportionality, the resistance of the conductor, the equation of calculating this is I = V/R. Where I is the current through the conductor measured in amps, V is the voltage (in volts, obviously), and R is the resistance of the conductor measured in ohms. Ohms law is so great, and so widely used because it describes the relations of these values in almost all electrically conductive materials with currents of many magnitudes, very few materials do not follow Ohms law, and they are called non-ohmic materials. Ohms law is often used in the form of the Ohms law triangle, which looks like this:

(Ohms triangle illustration here)

Political Sciences

Political Discussion

We discussd the upcomig EU election (2019), and we talked in detail about each party, of which there were 6 in the local area and we each decided on the party whose policies best fit our political opinions. This was very fun and informative, we also did a pretend ballot, i decided that the green party best fit my political views, i felt that their focus on enviormental problems is much needed nowadays, as the enviorement is degrading, i also like their opinions on copyright law. because of these things and others, i decided that the green party was the best party for me.


Blue shift and red shift

Blue shift and red shift are terms for describing the effect movement towards or away from the observer by an object emitting light affects the wavelength and thus the colour of the light, this is caused by the doppler effect. The Doppler effect is most often observed with sound, when an object emitting sound is moving towards you fast enough, the sound being emitted is compressed, making it sound higher pitched, and if it is moving away from you, the wavelength is increased, making it sound lower pitched, but if the object stops, the sound returns to normal, this same effect can be observed with light.

The light becomes more red when an object is moving away because it stretches out the waves of light coming from the object, and red light is a much lower frequency than blue light, with green light being in the middle frequency range. The doppler effect can be used to calculate how fast an object such as a star is moving towards or away from earth, this is how the hubble constant was found, the hubble constant was found by Edwin Hubble and is the rate of the expansion of the universe, it was found because every distant star in the galaxy was moving away from earth, showing the expansion of the universe and proving that the rate of the expansion of the universe is increasing.

This discovery was named the Hubble constant, and its discovery meant that the distance of any object (though generally a star) could be calculated by knowing 4 things, what the star is composed of, the amplitude of the light emitted, the frequency of the light emitted and the Hubble constant, This is useful as if you know these values, then you can calculate the distance of any given object.

Bipolar currents and potential difference

Potential difference (more commonly know as voltage) is the difference in potential electrical energy between 2 points on a circuit, it's what causes current to move through a circuit, from a cell (battery), to a component of a circuit. Voltage causes electrons to move through a circuit in what's called a Bipolar loop, where the electrons are given energy and moved along the circuit in a loop, they move to a component, impart their energy and move back to the cell to get more. The energy carried by the electrons is called the current and is measured in amps. The potential current in a circuit is measured in Volts,

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